Transpiration of water occurs by water loss in plants’ surface through the surface of the leaf. Leaves are the main part of the plant that transports water from the plant to its environment through the process of evaporation. The water movement from the root system to leaves is mediated by xylem bundles. This transpiration creates negative pressure on the leaf surface which is generally called a cohesion-tension mechanism generating hydrogen bonding making the water columns withstand the substantial tension. This tension region is created by the transpiration that is driven by solar energy by breaking hydrogen bonds. Via the leafâ€™s intracellular airspace, the transfer between the gases- oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs. On the mesophyll tissueâ€™s surface, the regions that are wet open up and causes evaporation and hence reduces the cell surface of the tissues. Tracheids and xylem vessels are adapted to withstand the pressure. The perforations found in the vessel elements decrease the size and number of gas bubbles by the cavitation process. These gas bubbles interfere with water streaming from the bottom to the top of the plant. This causes disturbance in the mineral and water flow in the sap of the xylem. The higher the length of the tree, the higher is the water pull in the vessels of the xylem. Breaks in xylem sap flow induce blocking of xylem vessels whose functionality is greatly disturbed.
Structure of Xylem
The xylem bundles constitute the tracheary elements that are long and are utilized for water transportation. Some structures are usually shorter like that of the tracheids. These tracheids are connected in long tubes called vessels.
The xylem mainly contains two types of cells such as 1) parenchyma and 2) fibers. The xylem is generally found in vascular bundles. The vascular bundles are mainly found in non-woody plants.
The primary xylem is produced at the time of primary growth, especially in the procambium. The primary xylem is composed of proto- and metaxylem. The metaxylem differentiates after the protoxylem development. The metaxylem contains wider tracheids and vessels than that found in protoxylem.
The secondary xylem is laid below in vascular cambium in woody plants. The xylem is found as a part of stellar which is not differentiated into bundles and is found in many ferns. The secondary xylem is mainly found in certain groups of gymnosperms such as Ginkgophyta and Gnetophyta. These two groups are found in conifers and angiosperms plants.
Transport of Water in Xylem
The water content found in the soil enters the root system by the epidermis. The root hairs increase the surface area in the root to increase the water flow. Once the water reaches the root surface, it travels to root cells (symplast) by crossing the plasma membrane and move on to the next cell by plasmodesmata.
Water moves in space between adjacent cells and moves into the cell wall. But the water cannot move or cross the plasma membrane in dead plants.
However, in the region on the cortex boundaries (endodermis), the water is impermeable due to the presence of suberin in the cell wall in a band-like portion (Casparian strip). Hence, for the water entry in the stele, first, it should cross the symplasm of endodermal cells, and further passes through plasmodesmata found in stele cells.
In the roots that have just formed, the molecules of water gain entry into the xylem vessels directly.
In the leaves, the vessels of the xylem traverse via the structure called the petiole and then gain entry into the leafâ€™s veins. From there, they finally reach spongy and palisade cell layers. These are the cells that utilize water for metabolic activities and the unused water gets evaporated through the process of transpiration.
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