The molecules move across the semi-permeable membrane. They move inside or outside the cell either by passive diffusion, facilitated transport, and active transport. Lipid soluble substances (Example: vitamins) can easily pass through the membrane, small molecules like 02, CO2, etc) can also pass through the membrane, charged, ionic substances cannot pass through the membrane, generally, the particles can cross the substance-specific channels and carriers. The transfer occurs either by unassisted or assisted membrane transfer. In Assisted membrane transfer impermeable molecules must be assisted by the protein to cross the membrane, hence it requires energy expenditure from the cells and is always assisted. In unassisted membrane transport, permeable molecules cross the membrane generally by the passive membrane transport where this is no requirement of energy due to the forces. It is the movement of the molecules that occurs by the random motion also known as Brownian motion that occurs from the higher concentration region to the lower concentration region. It occurs due to the concentration gradient and the electrical gradient.
The Passive Diffusion
The passive diffusion can occur in a few molecules, in the molecules that can cross the semi-permeable layer being hydrophobic. The diffusion also releases energy. The diffusion rate depends on its concentration. It is not affected by the concentration of other molecules. This random motion of molecules causes dynamic equilibrium to occurs where there is the movement of solutes across and within the section. Diffusion down the gradient concentration occurs when there is a random motion of molecules and the movement of molecules occurs from the high concentration to the low concentration. Concentrations tend to stabilize each side to attain a steady-state.
Osmosis is defined as a diffusion of water that occurs across the cell membrane from low to high concentrations. It helps the cell to maintain its cellular integrity or to transform itself by the changes that occur in the environment. Osmosis depends on facilitated diffusion to carrying water across the cell membrane with the assistance of aquaporins. Hence in osmosis: the movement of water occurs, it occurs through the semi-permeable membrane and it occurs down the water potential gradient. The movement is of three types: hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic.
Isotonic Solution: In this kind of solution, the concentration of solute inside and outside the cell is similar. As the concentration is the same so there is no net movement of solute particles in and out of the cell. Cell volume does not change.
Hypotonic Solution: In this type of solution, the diffusion of water occurs inside the cell from the low concentration of solute medium (there is less concentrated than the cytosol). Water will move inside of the cell and the volume of the cell enalrges.
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