Increased metabolic activity of almost all the tissues of the body, thereby increasing the basal metabolic rate. An increase in the size and number of mitochondria increase in total surface area of mitochondria, and all this result in the formation of more ATP to energize the cellular processes.
Thyroid hormone causes the cell membrane to become leaky to the sodium ions, and due to this cause, the sodium-potassium ATPase pump to be more activated. This pump uses a lot of ATP, hence effects on mitochondria. In this process, a lot of heat is produced as a manifestation of increased Basal metabolic rate. Important for promoting growth spatially in children and fetuses. And increases the rate at which carbohydrates are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and hepatitis glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In persons with hyperthyroidism, this may worsen the symptoms of diabetes mellitus and stimulates the fat metabolism by rapid mobilization of lipids from fatty tissues. This results in a high concentration of free fatty acids and increases oxidation.
Increased thyroid hormones cause a drop in plasma cholesterol concentration, phospholipid, and triglycerides but increase free fatty acid concentration. Simultaneously, the decrease in thyroid hormone concentration increases plasma cholesterol triglycerides, phospholipids and increased and deposited fat in the liver. The large increase in the circulating plasma cholesterol level during hypothyroidism is directly linked with serious atherosclerosis. Thyroid hormones act by increasing the number of many-body enzymes. They also increase the need for vitamins, and vitamins are an important part of enzymatic complexes.
Hyperthyroidism almost always results in a decrease in body weight, while hypothyroidism always increases body weight. Increase blood flow and cardiac output, heart rate, heart strength, respiration gastrointestinal motility secretion of gastrointestinal hormones. The excitatory effect on the central nervous system results in the fine muscle tremor that causes vigor in the muscles, the high concentration of the thyroid gland to the tiredness, difficulty sleeping. Increase thyroxine secretion causes increased secretion of insulin parathyroid hormone and glucocorticoids.
Effects of thyroid hormones:
The effects of thyroid hormone are as follows:
An increase in the size and number of mitochondria increase in total surface area of mitochondria, and all this result in the formation of more ATP to energize the cellular processes.
Thyroid hormone causes the cell membrane to become leaky to the sodium ions, and due to this cause, the sodium-potassium ATPase pump to be more activated. This pump uses a lot of ATP, hence effects on mitochondria. In this whole process, a lot of heat is produced as a manifestation of increased BMR.
Important for promoting growth spatially in children and fetuses.
T3 and T4 increases the rate at which carbohydrates are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and hepatitis glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In persons with hyperthyroidism, this may worsen the symptoms of diabetes mellitus.
T3 and T4 stimulate fat metabolism by rapid mobilization of lipids from fatty tissues. This results in a high concentration of free fatty acids and their increased oxidation. Increased thyroid hormones cause a drop in the concentration of plasma cholesterol, phospholipid, and triglycerides but an increase in free fatty acid concentration. At the same time, the decrease in thyroid hormone concentration causes an increase in plasma cholesterol triglycerides, phospholipids and increases and deposited fat in the liver. The large increase in the circulating plasma cholesterol level during hypothyroidism is directly linked with serious atherosclerosis.
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