Exposure to excess fluoride adversely affects several organs, such as the kidney, brain, and liver. It causes several degenerative and intellectual disorders. Some of the effects of fluoride toxicity in different organs and organ systems are as follows:
Renal effects: The kidney is a crucial organ for the excretion of fluoride. Therefore, excessive fluoride excretion results in structural and functional changes in kidneys. Swelling, tubular necrosis, and degeneration of tubular epithelium are the structural changes of the kidney due to fluoride toxicity. Excessive fluoride in the excretory system also increases serum creatinine and urea nitrogen.
Gastrointestinal tract (GIT): Excess fluoride in the GIT reacts with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form hydrogen fluoride. Fluoride toxicity accelerates gastric juice secretion and lowers the blood supply to the stomach lining. In addition, it leads to the destruction of epithelial cells.
Central nervous system (CNS): Fluoride crosses the blood-brain barrier before birth and adversely affects mental development. It results in neural disorders, learning disabilities, and decreased intelligence. In addition, the deficiency of essential elements like iodine may increase fluoride toxicity and cause neurological changes.
Fetal defects: Fluoride cross the placental barrier and enter into fetal tissues. It results in teratogenic effects on the fetus. In addition, excess fluoride negatively affects bone ossification in the fetus and makes their bones fragile. It also causes neurological damages, such as neural degeneration and limits the secretion of neurotransmitters, such as noradrenaline.
Excessive fluoride content in the body involves calcitonin activity and adversely affects the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Fluoride at a higher level affects both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. In addition, it leads to the destruction of white cell energy reservoirs.
Management of Fluoride Toxicity
Fluoride can be very hazardous in low and high conditions, but if the intake is in a controlled manner, fluoride causes no harm. The effective way to reduce fluoride toxicity is to reduce the frequent use of fluoride contained substances. Different ways to reduce and manage fluoride toxicity are as follows:
Calcium can be preferred when the consumption of fluoride exceeds 5 milligrams per kilograms (mg/kg). Calcium should be administered to the patient’s body, as free fluoride ions bind to calcium and neutralize excess fluoride. The solubility of the compounds, such as sodium fluoride and hydrogen fluoride is relatively high and, the body can absorb it at a faster rate. Reduced consumption of these compounds containing substances can reduce the rate of fluoride toxicity. Calcium-rich substances, such as milk possess a fluoride binding effect and lower the fluoride absorption rate. Components, such as calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, or milk of magnesia and alumina form an insoluble complex and reduce the fluoride absorption rate. Which in turn reduces fluoride toxicity.
Alkalization of body fluids is helpful to remove the fluoride in the body fluids at a faster rate. It increases the elimination of fluoride through urine and maintains a standard fluoride level.
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