The animals choose their mating partners with a strategy to improvise their reproductive success and compete with members of the same sex. This process increases the fitness of the species in the population. The reproductive behavior is the species-specific behavior including the components such as sexual behavior and maternal behavior, the sexual behavior composed of precopulatory behavior, copulatory behavior, and postcopulatory behavior. The maternal behavior includes periparturient behavior, parturient behavior, and post-parturient behavior.
Sexual selection is processed for the improvisation of the reproductive success of the species. Sexual selection is grouped as intersexual selection and intrasexual selection.
Intrasexual selection: The intrasexual selection involves the competition present between the males for the partners. The competition exhibited is for the attraction of the individual of the opposite sex. The competition takes place between two or more males.
Intersexual selection: The females are identified to choose between the males of the same species in the intersexual lection. The investment in the offspring is high in the mammalian females utilizing intersexual selection. Females with restricted reproductive opportunities are found to employ intersexual selection. The selection is made by the females for raising the reproductive success of the offsprings. Half of the genetic quality of the offspring produced depends upon the choice of the female.
The factors affecting sexual behavior include display, courtship, postures, and motor activities. These factors are identified to have unity with the coitus for increasing the frequency of fertilization and the rate of pregnancy. The sexual behavior is specific for each species.
Precopulatory behavior: The precopulatory behavior is expressed through various modes of communication including chemical communication, tactile communication, and auditory communication. The responses to the precopulatory behavior exhibited to the male include the Flehmen phenomenon, chin resting behavior, and the response exhibited to the female includes the standing behavior. The Flehmen phenomenon is performed by raising the head of the male. it also includes the extension of the neck. The upper lip is also curled along with the opening of the nostrils in the flehmen phenomenon. The tactile communication is exhibited by the nuzzling of the perineal region. Auditory communication employed includes snorting, bleating, bellowing, and baaing. The olfactory communication is performed through the discharge of the pheromones and the secretions from the poll gland. The visual communication in the pre-copulatory behavior includes the reddening and swelling of the perennial region. The tactile communication is performed through rubbing and licking in the perineal area. The motor clues in the pre-copulatory behavior include elevated motor activity and crawling.
Copulatory behavior: The protrusion and erection of the penis are considered an important copulatory behavior. The other copulatory behaviors employed by the male include fixation, mounting, dismounting, ejaculation, and intromission. The female copulatory behavior includes the oestrus detection, oestrus pattern in the receptivity by the male. The intromission includes the tightening of the abdominal muscle. The pelvic region is directly contacted between the female and male during the intromission.
Post-copulatory behavior: The animals are identified to exhibit sexual inactivity after the copulation. The period after the population is called the refractory period, which varies between five minutes to one hour. The frequency of the population differs between the breed, species, and period of sexual rest.
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