Selective cell adhesions in animal development

Involvement of the selectins in leukocyte capture, rolling, and firm adhesion:
Cell-cell adhesion of like cells is the foundation of the multicellular structure. For example, epithelial cells adhere to each other and form the epithelial lining of the small intestine. The interaction of cells is purely based on molecular reactions at the surface of cells. Molecular reactions take place with the help of special molecules called cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs). Cell-adhesion molecules identify different ligands at cell junctions before binding to them. There are four main types of cell-adhesion molecules in mammals: These are as follows:

Cadherins

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Selective cell adhesions in animal development
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Integrins

Immunoglobin super family

Selectins

Cells attach to their neighboring cells or the extracellular matrix at a specific type of cell junctions. These cell junctions are called anchoring junctions. These junctions are essential requirements for the formation of tissues. Anchoring junctions are basically of the following three types:-

Desmosomes – Desmosomes connect one cell to another with the help of cadherins.

Hemidesmosomes – Hemidesmosomes connect one cell to another with an extracellular matrix with the help of integrins.

Adherens junctions – These help in joining cell to cell and cell to an extracellular matrix with the help of both integrins and cadherins.

Role of Cadherins in Cell-Cell Adhesion:
Cadherins are calcium-dependent cell-adhesion molecules. Desmosomes and adherens junctions make use of cadherins to create protein complexes for cell-cell attachment. In desmosome protein complexes, a bridge-type structure is made between cadherins of each cell. This protein complex is extremely useful in providing strong mechanical strength. Due to their strong mechanical strength, desmosome complexes are abundantly found in the epidermis tissue and the heart as these are frequently subjected to mechanical stress.

Cadherins interact with actin filaments in adherens junction. This type of interaction is through intermediate anchor proteins, known as catenins. Epithelial and endothelial are common tissues where this type of cell-cell adhesion is found. Calcium plays an important role in cadherin functional activity, It maintains the rigid structure, which is an essential factor required for binding. At the ionic level, we can say that calcium ions provide an inflexible structure as they are present between each pair of cadherins. On the other hand, the rigidity of the adhesion structure has a positive correlation with the number of calcium ions present.

Role of Integrins in Cell-Cell Adhesion:
The integrins are an essential family of cell adhesion receptors. They have a role in adhesive interactions either between cells or between the cell and the extracellular matrix. These adhesive conditions are major for tissue organization and cell migration. They perform a key function in various processes. Some of these methods are platelet aggregation, immune system function, tissue regeneration at the time of wound healing, migration of epithelial cells at the time of epigenesis, peripheral nerve regeneration, and organization of cells at the time of embryonic development.

Additionally to its function in normal cellular function, adhesion is also applied in a broad diversity of human diseases such as inflammation, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, tumor metastasis, thrombosis, ulceration, and microbial and parasitic infection. Deciding the mechanisms under adhesion is likely to assists in making strategies for intervention in these diseases.

Role of Selectins in Cell-Cell Adhesion

Specific adhesive features of white blood cells rely on selectins. In areas of inflammation, leukocyte recruitment from the circulation side into tissues need leukocytes to communicate with vascular endothelial cells. Leukocyte-endothelial cell communications are intervened in part by cell-surface adhesion molecules involving members of the integrin, selectin, and immunoglobulin families. Through supportive interactions, these receptors mediate leukocyte capture from the flowing blood, firm adhesion, rolling, and subsequent extravasation. The selectin family of adhesion molecules mainly enables the first attachment of leukocytes to endothelial cells, which assists in leukocytes to roll alongside the venular wall. The selectin family is composed of three closely related cell-surface molecules: E-selectin, L-selectin, and P-selectin. The differential appearance and role of the selectins by diverse leukocyte subclasses and various beds of vascular endothelium permits for considerable specificity in leukocyte movement into tissues at areas of inflammation, wound healing, and immune reactions.

Selective Cell-Cell Adhesion in Animal Development:
Selective cell-cell adhesion is of utmost importance for the development of tissues and ultimately organs and organ systems. Formation of tissues that involves cell migration, selective cell-cell adhesion becomes even more important. In these types of tissues, a colony of cells occupies another colony and joins with it. It then forms an organized structure.

Migration of cells to form different types of tissues

Let us clarify this by taking an example of vertebrate embryos. In the initial stage of embryo development, cells from the neural crest move away from the epithelial neural tube. These cells then move along specific pre-defined paths to many other regions of the embryo. On reaching a specific region, they assemble and other cells to differentiate into a variety of body tissues.

It has been scientifically observed that some cells that were initially part of the epithelial neural tube change their adhesive properties. They then separate from the epithelium tissue to form the neural crest. These cells then move away and form different types of cells and eventually tissues throughout the embryo.

In the image shown below, assembling and differentiating neural crest cells to form two collections of nerve cells, called ganglia, is depicted. Other neural crest cells differentiate to become supporting cells that surround the neurons.


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently
 

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper

Published