Professional Psychology: Research and Practice
1992, Vol. 23, No. 4, 306-309
In the public domain
Distinguishing Psychological Disorders From Neurological Disorders:
Taking Axis III Seriously
Mark W Bondi
San Diego Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center
and Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine
University of California at San Diego
Inasmuch as current efforts in clinical neuropsychology call attention to the difficulty in differentiating psychological from neurological disorders, it is unclear to what extent professional psychologists without expertise in this subspecialty have knowledge of this diagnostic issue. This article
asserts the need for psychologists to have requisite knowledge of neurological disorders that can
initially present with psychological symptoms. Recent developments in professional psychology’s
advancement into hospital settings has prompted examination of such competency issues, and the
abilities of psychologists to accurately differentiate neurological from psychological disorders are
discussed. Examples of neurological conditions that commonly exhibit psychological symptoms
are highlighted, and reference to the elderly is made to exemplify the need for accurate diagnostic
sophistication. Relevant research is reviewed and suggestions for training are offered.
A current professional issue involves the question of psychologists’ competency to function as autonomous professionals
within medical settings and to refer appropriate patients to
such settings (cf. California Association of Psychology Providers et al. vs. Rank, 1989). This concern is most apparent
when considering that more than 10% of the American Psychological Association’s members practice in medical settings, a
percentage that continues to increase (DeLeon, Pallak, & Hefferman, 1982; Enright, Resnick, DeLeon, Sciara, & Tanney,
1990). If psychologists were, in fact, employed as independent
practitioners within such settings, would their professional
diagnostic competencies include the ability to distinguish psychological from neurological disorders? To date, very few empirical studies have addressed this or related questions (cf. Sanchez
& Kahn, 1991; Sbordone & Rudd, 1986). As Geschwind (1975)
pointed out, even if psychological sequelae to neurological disorders were uncommon, this would in no way justify neglect on
the part of mental health professionals in obtaining the requisite knowledge to differentiate such causes.
Historically, estimates have indicated that approximately
30% of all patients initially admitted to psychiatric hospitals
actually have neurological disorders or disease (Maltzberg,
MARK W BONDI received his PhD in clinical psychology from the
University of Arizona in 1991. He is currently completing a National
Institute on Aging postdoctoral fellowship (AG-05561) in neuropsychology at the Department of Psychiatry, University of California at
San Diego, School of Medicine. His research interests include the neuropsychology of dementia and cognitive sequelae associated with substance abuse.
THE AUTHOR THANKS F. Curtis Breslin for his helpful comments on this
CORRESPONDENCE CONCERNING THIS ARTICLE should be addressed to
Mark W Bondi, Psychology Service (116B), Department of Veterans
Affairs Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, California 92161.
1959). More recent and conservative estimates, however, indicate that approximately 10% of patients initially diagnosed with
psychological disorders are subsequently found to have a physical basis for their symptoms (see Muecke & Krueger, 1981; Sanchez & Kahn, 1991). Nonetheless, the prognostic and treatment
consequences of inaccurate diagnoses are obvious: Patients
with underlying medical or neurological conditions will likely
go untreated and may deteriorate while in the psychologist’s
Although a recent study by Sanchez and Kahn (1991) found
that mental health professionals were as accurate as medically
trained clinicians in differentiating medical from psychological disorders, another study by Sbordone and Rudd (1986) revealed more troublesome findings with regard to the more specific differentiation of neurological from psychological disorders. They empirically addressed whether professional
psychologists practicing in the community could recognize an
underlying neurological disorder in patients presenting with
disturbed psychological functioning and whether they would
recommend referral of such a patient to a neurologist. Survey
questionnaires were mailed to and completed by 206 psychologists. Four case vignettes were presented containing salient descriptions of an underlying neurological disorder within the
context of a psychological disorder presentation. Their results
indicated that little more than half of those surveyed recommended referral to a neurologist. More than one third of the
psychologists recommended psychotherapeutic treatment
alone. They concluded that these findings argue strongly for
professional psychologists having a better working knowledge
of neurological disorders and closer working relationships with
neurologists and other medical specialists.
The data also suggest that psychologists often may not consider or attempt to rule out neurological conditions that can
present with behavioral symptoms. The findings above are
somewhat disturbing because the current multiaxial diagnostic
system provided in the revised third edition of the Diagnostic
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS 307
andStatisticalManualofMental Disorders(DSM-IH-R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) explicitly calls for the clinician to integrate information on physical or neurological conditions into diagnostic formulations.
Given that the average annual incidence of neurological disorders in the general population is approximately 2,500 per
100,000 people, or 2.5% (Kurtzke, 1991), attention to the possibility of clients with such conditions presenting for psychological treatment is certainly indicated. Indeed, a number of neurological disorders can present with psychological symptoms; examples include temporal lobe epilepsy, frontal lobe lesions,
limbic system damage, central nervous system toxicity, traumatic head injury, multiple sclerosis, early stages of Huntington’s disease, and psychoses associated with various endocrine
diseases, to highlight but a few. In addition, false-positive diagnoses of conversion reactions inappropriately applied to persons with physical disease does not appear uncommon (Watson
& Buranen, 1979). Although detailed discussion of these and
other neurological disorders is beyond the scope of this article,
brief descriptions of neurological disorders that commonly exhibit psychological symptomatology are provided, and I refer
the reader to additional sources (e.g., Benson & Blumer, 1975;
Berg, Franzen, & Wedding, 1987; Jefferson & Marshall, 1983;
Kolb & Whishaw, 1989; Pincus & Tucker, 1985; Taylor, 1982).
Neurological disorders can exhibit a multitude of psychological symptoms, including paranoia, hallucinations, attentional
deficits, mood swings, euphoria, sleep disturbance, personality
changes, depression, impaired memory, anxiety, apathy, and violence (Lishman, 1978). Temporal lobe epilepsy (also termed
complex partial seizure disorder), for example, has clear cognitive and affective changes associated with it (Blumer, 1975;
Trimble, 1982; Trimble & Thompson, 1986). Consistent behavioral changes following onset of temporal lobe seizures include
a global diminution in sexual behavior and impulsive-irritable
behavior (Blumer, 1975); yet they often tend to be hyperethical
and display hyperreligiosity, focusing on the qualities of good
and evil, right and wrong, and an overall deepening of emotional experience. Nothing is thought to be trivial, and insignificant details can assume great importance. Hypergraphia (i.e.,
excessive writing) also is common.
Personality changes following frontal lobe damage often include apathy and loss of all initiative; at the other end of the
spectrum, such patients can display euphoria with a lack of
adult restraint or tact (Benson & Blumer, 1975; Stuss & Benson,
1984,1986; Taylor, 1982). The earliest symptoms of frontal lobe
tumors usually involve alterations in behavior consistent with
those of a psychological origin. The apathy displayed by the
patient with a frontal lobe lesion could possibly be mistaken for
the psychomotor retardation of the depressed individual; the
distinction between the two is that the apathy of the frontal
lobe patient has no theme (e.g., empty indifference), whereas
the depressed patient typically reveals a preoccupation with
worrisome thoughts. Incontinence also is a frequent indicator
of frontal lobe pathology.
In a related vein, patients who have sustained traumatic head
injury often exhibit symptoms and behaviors similar to those of
frontal lesion patients, in part because the frontal lobes are
highly susceptible to damage from closed head trauma (see
Butler & Satz, 1988; Grimm & Bleiberg, 1986). Butler and Satz
(1988) have suggested that the clinician be aware that a head
trauma patient may appear depressed, exhibiting symptoms of
memory dysfunction, psychomotor retardation, apathy, lack of
initiation, and blunted or flat affect, in the absence of a major
depressive disorder. This does not imply that such patients may
not, in fact, become depressed. However, when a history of
head trauma has been identified, close attention should be paid
to the subjective, cognitive, and mood-related symptoms of depression; “[njeurovegetative signs such as alterations in sexual
functioning and sleep patterns become less useful as indexes of
depression in head trauma patients” (Butler & Satz, 1988,
Huntington’s disease has two clearly recognizable syndromes: (a) a progressive dementia afflicting all patients, involving motoric dysfunction (i.e., chorea), and (b) an intermittent affective disorder afflicting the majority of the patients (for
discussion, see Albert & Moss, 1988; Folstein, Brandt, & Folstein, 1990; McHugh & Folstein, 1975). The affective changes
often appear before the onset of choreic movements and resemble bipolar or schizophrenic disorders. Paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, and mood swings are a number of such symptoms.
Because Huntington’s disease is an inherited (autosomal
dominant) disease, one parent will have had the disease and
usually die before the child ever develops any symptoms. Therefore, family histories are critical in the determination of this
Psychiatric and cognitive disturbances are also a common
feature of metabolic and endocrine disorders (Lishman, 1978).
Cognitive deterioration is a fairly consistent finding in pronounced thyroid insufficiency (hypothyroidism). It shares similarities with symptoms associated with progressive degenerative dementia, such as insidious onset and progression of cognitive decline. The patient suffers from sluggishness, lethargy,
poor attention and concentration, and memory disturbances.
However, this condition is indeed reversible with thyroid replacement therapy (Lezak, 1983).
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive degenerative disorder
causing demyelination of cortical and subcortical structures,
can also present with psychological symptoms. Frequent symptoms include muscle weakness and fatigue, double vision,
numbness and paresthesia, pain, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and sexual disturbance (Rao, 1990). Affective disturbances, including both euphoria and depression, can accompany or precede the onset of neurological disturbances in MS
patients (Devins & Seland, 1987; Rao, 1990; Surridge, 1969).
Conversion symptoms, too, may be mistakenly attached to the
initial symptoms of MS.
Another general diagnostic consideration involves physical
symptoms such as headaches, which can be symptomatic of
stress, anxiety, or depression, or the first sign of an organic
disturbance. Within the neurological literature, Pincus and
Tucker (1985) have advised colleagues to fully investigate any
headache that is “the worst, the first, or cursed (by neurological
abnormalities)” (p. 292). That is, if the headache is the worst
ever reported by the patient, if it is a new type of headache, or if
it is associated with neurological signs, it may be of organic
308 MARK W BONDI
etiology. However, if the headaches are dull, generalized, constant for many days in a row, or have been present for more than
a year, they are likely to have no neurological cause (Pincus &
Conversely, headaches caused by early brain tumors result
from increased intracranial pressure or by traction of the mass
on pain-sensitive structures within the skull (Pincus & Tucker,
1985). Unfortunately, there is no single characteristic of headaches caused by a brain tumor. They may be present in the
morning on awakening and recede as the day continues. Often
the headaches are either bifrontal or bioccipital, lateralized or
localized, and can be exacerbated or relieved by changes in
positioning. Pincus and Tucker (1985) further state that the
single most important feature in distinguishing tension headache from those caused by increased intracranial pressure is
that the patient usually presents to the physician within a few
weeks of headache onset in the latter case. Although these are
general guidelines, properly evaluating headaches is complex.
Thus, any complaint of headaches should be seriously entertained for neurological causes and warrants consideration of a
Finally, it should be noted that there is evidence accumulating that previously held “psychiatric” disorders, such as schizophrenia, are now thought to show brain abnormalities and that
the traditional dichotomy between organic and functional disorders may be misleading and misconstrued in some cases.
Certainly an interaction may be possible; for instance, a sequelae to the brain may result in a higher risk of developing
different types of psychiatric disorders (for discussion, see
Crockett, Clark, & Klonoff, 1981). Close attention to recent
advances in the neurosciences will help elucidate more precisely the nature of brain-behavior relationships and ultimately
shed new light on the distinction between functional and organic disorders.
Differential Diagnosis in the Elderly
Another example of this “borderland” (Geschwind, 1975) between neurology and psychology is seen in the elderly. As early
as a decade ago, an estimated 15% to 25% of the elderly were
reported to have significant mental health problems (U.S. President’s Commission on Mental Health, 1978). Of those elderly
who reside outside of long-term care facilities and institutionalized settings, approximately 10% to 15% are cognitively impaired, and an equal number experience significant affective
disorders (Reisberg & Ferris, 1982). In addition, Butler (1975)
indicated that the incidence of psychopathology increases with
age, stating that psychological disorders increase steadily with
each decade of lifeâ€”particularly depression and paranoid
states. Indeed, the hallmark illness in the elderly, dementia or
“senility,” is inaccurately diagnosed in 10% to 30% of cases
within general medical populations (National Institute on Aging Task Force, 1980). Various intracranial conditions, systemic
illnesses, deficiency states, endocrinopathies, drug effects,
toxin effects, infections, and vascular disorders can present as
dementing illness (Cummings, Benson, & LoVerma, 1980); a
substantial proportion of such cases have potentially reversible
A neurological disorder mistakenly diagnosed as a psychological disorder, or the converse, is not uncommon, partly because
of the inherent difficulty in differentiating these conditions.
Kaszniak (1987) delineated several reasons for difficulty in differentiating dementia from depression in older age. First, there
are changes in cognitive functioning associated with normal
aging, tending to blur the distinction between normal age-related changes and early indicators of dementia. Second, cognitive difficulty frequently accompanies depression in the elderly
and can be of sufficient severity to be confused with dementia.
Third, the signs and symptoms of neurological disorders in
which dementia can occur do have some overlap with those of
depression (e.g., psychomotor slowing, sleep and appetite disturbances). Last, dementia can be accompanied by depression
in some patients. Thus, from the example of elderly populations, it is apparent that the misdiagnosis of treatable neurological disease presenting with psychological symptomatology (e.g.,
reversible neurological illnesses such as hyperthyroidism misdiagnosed as bipolar disorder) is not uncommon despite the
obvious need for accurate assessment of this fast-growing segment of the population.
Clinical Training Considerations
Sbordone and Rudd (1986) underscore that doctoral programs in clinical psychology generally do not include formal
training in the recognition of neurological disorders. Rather,
most training occurs at the general level of instruction of the
biologic bases of behavior, without specific reference to neurological disorders and their concomitant behavioral symptomatology. Berg, Franzen, and Wedding (1987) have also suggested
that such gaps are present in the training of general clinicians,
who are often not taught to recognize when referral to a specialist is appropriate.
Unfortunately, many training programs in neuropsychology, and
especially in clinical psychology, leave the student ill prepared
and inexperienced in this area, and . . . dismayed by both the
number and complexity of central nervous system disorders that
may first manifest themselves through aberrant behavior. (Wedding, 1986, p. 59)
Thus, following their predoctoral or postdoctoral training,
psychologists may not be adequately equipped with the diagnostic sophistication to detect subtle underlying neurological
disorders in clients seeking psychological treatment (for discussion, see Sbordone & Rudd, 1986).
A number of actions may help to achieve such competency,
including thorough histories and behavioral assessments of all
patients, regular screening referrals of patients to physicians,
maintaining referral networks that include clinical neuropsychologists and physicians (such as neurologists and psychiatrists), continuing education programs that focus on differential diagnosis, didactic and experiential training in clinical neuropsychology, research delineating the caveats in psychologists’
knowledge of neurological and other medical disorders, and
development of specialized training within clinical psychology
programs for the recognition of neurological and other medical
Finally, the scant literature investigating psychologists’ and
other health care professionals’ competency in this and related
domains should be buttressed. Future research will be crucial
in determining differential diagnostic abilities of practicing clinicians. Such efforts will assure that issues of diagnostic accuracy between mental health professionals are resolved empirically and not through the political arena (for discussion, see
Sanchez & Kahn, 1991). Integral to this end, the statutory au-
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS 309
thority to independently practice psychology in hospital settings has been attacked most pointedly around this competency issue: “that only a physician is authorized to render a
diagnosis concerning a mental disorder that is organic in origin
or nature” (Enright, Welch, Newman, & Perry, 1990). As the
California Supreme Court has recently judged professional psychologists to be competent for primary responsibility of diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders, regardless of whether
the mental disorder is of a physical or psychological origin
(Enright et al., 1990), greater attention is warranted on this specific question of competency in distinguishing neurological
from psychological disorders.
Albert, M. S., & Moss, M. B. (1988). Geriatric neuropsychology. New
York: Guilford Press.
American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical
manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev). Washington, DC: Author.
Benson, D. F, & Blumer, D. (Eds.). (1975). Psychiatric aspects of neurological disease. New \brk: Grune and Stratton.
Berg, R., Franzen, M., & Wedding, D. (1987). Screening for brain impairment: A manual for mental health practice. New York: Springer.
Blumer, D. (1975). Temporal lobe epilepsy and its psychiatric significance. In D. F. Benson & D. Blumer (Eds.), Psychiatric aspects of
neurological disease (pp. 171-198). New York: Grune and Stratton.
Butler, R. N. (1975). Psychiatry and the elderly: An overview. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 893-900.
Butler, R. W, &Satz, P. (1988). Individual psychotherapy with head-injured adults: Clinical notes for the practitioner. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 19, 536-541.
California Association of Psychology Providers et al. v. Peter Rank et
al. Order from the California Superior Court (Los Angeles, January
17,1986). Case No. C 502929.
Crockett, D, Clark, C, & Klonoff, H. (1981). Introduction: An overview of neuropsychology. In S. B. Filskov & T. J. Boll (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neuropsychology (pp. 1-38). New York: Wiley.
Cummings, J, Benson, F, & LoVerma, S. (1980). Reversible dementia:
Illustrative cases, definition, and review. Journal of the American
Medical Association, 243, 2434-2439.
DeLeon, P. H., Pallak, M. S., & HefFernan, J. A. (1982). Hospital health
care delivery. American Psychologist, 37,1340-1341.
Devins, G. M, & Seland, T. P. (1987). Emotional impact of multiple
sclerosis: Recent findings and suggestions for future research. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 363-375.
Enright, M. F, Resnick, R., DeLeon, P. H, Sciara, A. D, & Tanney, F.
(1990). The practice of psychology in hospital settings. American
Enright, M. F, Welch, B. L, Newman, R., & Perry, B. M. (1990). The
hospital: Psychology’s challenge in the 1990’s. American Psychologist, 45,1057-1058.
Folstein, S. E, Brandt, J., & Folstein, M. F. (1990). Huntington’s disease.
In J. Cummings (Ed.), Subcortical dementia (pp. 87-107). New York:
Oxford University Press.
Geschwind, N. (1975). The borderland of neurology and psychiatry:
Some common misconceptions. In D. F. Benson & D. Blumer (Eds.),
Psychiatric aspects of neurological disease (pp. 1-9). New \brk:
Grune and Stratton.
Grimm, B. H, & Bleiberg, J. (1986). Psychological rehabilitation in
traumatic brain injury. In S. B. Filskov & T. J. Boll (Eds.), Handbook
of clinical neuropsychology (Vol. 2, pp. 495-560). New \brk: Wiley.
Jefferson, J. W, & Marshall, J. R. (1983). Neuropsychiatric features of
medical disorders. New York: Plenum Press.
Kaszniak, A. W (1987). Neuropsychological consultation to geriatricians: Issues in the assessment of memory complaints. The Clinical
Neuropsychologist, 1, 35-46.
Kolb, B, & Whishaw, I. Q. (1989). Fundamentals of human neuropsychology (3rd ed.). New York: Freeman.
Kurtzke, J. F. (1991). Neuroepidemiology. In W G. Bradley, R. B. Daroff, G. M. Fenichel, & C. D. Marsden (Eds.), Neurology in clinical
practice: Principles of diagnosis and management (Vol. 1, pp. 545-
560). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Lezak, M. D. (1983). Neuropsychological assessment (2nd ed.). New
\brk: Oxford University Press.
Lishman, W A. (1978). Organic psychiatry. St. Louis: Blackwell.
Maltzberg, B. (1959). Important statistical data about mental illness.
In S. Arieti (Ed.), American handbook of psychiatry (Vol. 1, pp. 161-
174). New York: Basic Books.
McHugh, P. R, & Folstein, M. F. (1975). Psychiatric syndromes of
Huntington’s chorea. In D. F. Benson & D. Blumer (Eds), Psychiatric
aspects of neurological disease (pp. 267-277). New \fark: Grune and
Muecke, L. N, & Krueger, D. W (1981). Physical findings in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 1241-
National Institute on Aging Task Force. (1980). Senility reconsidered:
Treatment possibilities for mental impairment in the elderly. Journal
of the American Medical Association, 244, 259-263.
Pincus, J. H, & Tucker, G. J. (1985). Behavioral neurology (3rd. ed.). New
York: Oxford University Press.
Rao, S. (1990). Multiple sclerosis. In J. Cummings (Ed), Subcortical
dementia (pp. 164-180). New York: Oxford University Press.
Reisberg, B, & Ferris, S. H. (1982). Diagnosis and assessment of the
older patient. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 33,104-110.
Sanchez, P. N., & Kahn, M. W (1991). Differentiating medical from
psychological disorders: How do medically and non-medically
trained clinicians compare? Professional Psychology: Research and
Sbordone, R. J, & Rudd, M. (1986). Can psychologists recognize neurological disorders in their patients? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 8, 285-291.
Stuss, D. T, & Benson, D. F. (1984). Neuropsychological studies of the
frontal lobes. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 3-28.
Stuss, D. T, & Benson, D. F. (1986). The frontal lobes. New York: Raven
Surridge, D. (1969). An investigation into some psychiatric aspects of
multiple sclerosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 749-764.
Taylor, R. L. (1982). Mind or body? Distinguishing psychological from
organic disorders. New \brk: McGraw Hill.
Trimble, M.R. (1982). The interictal psychoses of epilepsy. In D. F.
Benson & D. Blumer (Eds), Psychiatric aspects of neurological disease (Vol. 2, pp. 75-92). New York: Grune & Stratton.
Trimble, M. R, & Thompson, P. J. (1986). Neuropsychological aspects
of epilepsy. In I. Grant & K. M. Adams (Eds), Neuropsychological
assessment of neuropsychiatric disorders (pp. 321-346). New York:
Oxford University Press.
US. President’s Commission on Mental Health. (1978). Task panel reports (Vol. 3, Appendix). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Watson, C. G, & Buranen, C. (1979). The frequency and identification
of false positive conversion reactions. Journal of Nervous and Mental
Disease, 167, 243-247.
Wedding, D. (1986). Neurological disorders. In D. Wedding, A. M.
Horton, & J. Webster (Eds), The neuropsychology handbook (pp.
59-79). New York: Springer.
Received July 29,1991
Revision received January 23,1992
Accepted February 3,1992 â€¢
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!