Hypertonicity: Placing an animal cell in a hypertonic solution makes the cells become shrink because inside the cell water moves from higher concentration to lower concentration. An animal cell and its cell wall lose their water when placed in a hypertonic solution. Destruction in the red blood cells developing changes in its appearance and becomes star-shaped. Shrinking of the cell wall membrane in a hypertonic solution with enormous pressure is called plasmolysis. This plasmolysis is further divided into two types are concave and convex plasmolysis. The equivalent process called crenation in animal cells creates the appearance of red blood cells with the shape of a spiked ball.
Isotonicity: The best example of an isotonic solution is 0.9% normal saline. The isotonic solution remains constant and unaffected. Because it does not show any water movement in and out of the animal cell even no osmosis occurs in an isotonic solution. Electrolyte balance and concentration of water are the same in an isotonic solution of animal cells. The shape of the animal cell is not affected by the isotonic solution.
Hypotonicity: The hypotonic solution contains more water than an animal cell and makes the flow of water moves into the cell. Tap water and pure water are a good example of hypotonic solutions. And, the animal cells are made with rough cellulose walls. So, the movement of water flows continuously into the cell causes lysis or burst. If an animal cell is placed in a hypotonic solution the cells fill up the water that leads to bursting, because there is no cell wall present in the animal cell. The contractile vacuoles are organelles that pumping the water out of the cell and prevent it from bursting.
Maintaining Osmotic Balance â€“ Osmoregulation
Maintaining osmoregulation in an animal cell is a must because it avoids the shrinking and swelling of cells. The effect osmoregulation occurs both in hypertonic and hypotonic solutions and it keeps the normal osmotic balance in animal cells. Here, the osmoregulation is divided into two categories are regulators and conformers. In the first category osmoregulatory are used to control and maintain the osmotic condition of the internal environment. But, not work in an external environment. Osmoconfomators use the two processes active and passive through this process conformators mimic the osmolarity of the environment. Humans and animals are coming under the category of osmoregulation. For example, when fish lives in a hypertonic saltwater environment it can able to regulate the water balance through taking water from the surrounding environment and excreting saltwater out through urination. In a freshwater environment, it maintains the constant osmosis inside of the cell through urination that causes water out from the body. The marine invertebrate lobsters and jellyfishes are coming under the category of osmoconformers.
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