Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development

Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development
ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)
Vol.4, No.1, 2013
Stock Market Reaction to Political Events (Evidence from
Sajid Gul
Faculty of Business Administration Air University Islamabad , Mardan 23200 KPK Pakistan
Tel: +92-332-8102955 *E-mail: [email protected]
Muhammad Tauseef Khan
MS Scholar Air University Islamabad
Naveed Saif
PhD scholar Gomal University D.I Khan
Shafiq Ur Rehman
Lecturer Department of Management Studies University of Malakand
Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar
This study examines the impact of events of different nature like: political, natural calamities and terrorism on
the share prices of the financial sector of Pakistan. A sample of 14 companies are selected randomly from the
financial sector (Insurance and Banking) listed on the KSE-100 index. The time span is of four years i-e
2007-10. The data is analyzed through paired samples t-test statistics. The results indicate that events have
significant impact on the stock prices and prices behave negatively when a major event emerges on national or
international front. A joint effort is required from different individuals, stake holders, regulators, economists,
investors, government and foreign officials to secure the effectiveness of the financial market in Pakistan from
the curse of political pressure, terrorists and suicidal bombing which in return help in the prosperity of the
country. To encourage and motivate the investors both domestically or internationally the governance system in
country should be fair and transparent and secure environment would increase the morale of the investors.
Keywords: Paired sample t-test statistics; Events study Method Approach, Stock Prices
1.1 Introduction
Stock market is a place where trading of publicly owned securities took place. It plays pivotal role in transferring
of surplus funds from one individual to another and performs the function of financial inter mediation between
two parties one has in surplus and the other one has deficit in income. Stock market has a strong link with the
global and domestic stability of a country. The regional, national and global uncertainty and unsound financial
standings affects the stock exchange in a country. Crops production, manufacturing industries or infra structure
damages due to natural disasters, calamities and political uncertainties adversely affect the stock markets
stability and integrity. The economic situations inflation, recession and price fluctuations have direct impact on
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development
ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)
Vol.4, No.1, 2013
the direction of stock market. Corruptions and other factors involving world events also had direct effects on the
trust worthiness of the system as a whole. The regions which are at war or facing some terrorist activities as we
are facing in our country have slashed our Annual Developmental Programs, has also adversely affected our
business, commerce and stock markets within the affected region. Karachi stock exchange is the biggest stock
exchange in Pakistan among the Lahore and Islamabad stock exchanges due to its high market capitalization,
high turnover. The ethnic crisis, target killings, irrelevant agitations have badly suffered this area and low
productive activities have marred the investors interest and their hesitation from further investment in the
country. Year 2007-10 are counted as the dark period for Pakistan, in which miserable events arose in high
number and globally it had affected the reputation of the country. These crises had restricted the foreign and
domestic investments because the investor did not have any hope to achieve. The prevailing condition of suicidal
and terrorism attacks by Taliban, Al-Qaeda, miscreants and the political climate badly affected our economic
stability and the stock markets. Some events had crippled our stock market such as 9/11 terrorists attack, London
bombings, killings of foreign journalists and some top influential leaders (Benazir Bhutto, Nawab Akbar Bugti
etc), political instability in the time of General Pervaiz Musharraf, judiciary war against government, fights in
tribal areas and Malakand Division, US Drone attacks in FATA. These events had badly hit the stock return in
the KSE. These events had caused speedy fluctuations and unrest in the Karachi Stock Exchange. KSE 100-index
was launched in November 1991 with a base of 1,000 points. By 2001, it had grown to 1,770 points. By 2005, it
had skyrocketed to 9,989 points. It then reached to 12,285 in February 2007. KSE-100 index touched the highest
ever benchmark of 14,814 points on December 26, 2007 and market capitalization of 4.57 trillion, a day before
the assassination of former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, when the index nosedived. The index recovered
quickly in 2008, reaching new highs near 15,500 in April. However, by November 22, 2008 during the global
financial crisis of 2008 it had fallen to 9,187.
1.2 Impact of Terrorism on the Economy and the Financial Sector
The terrorist activities were on the peak till the end of 2010 in Pakistan. Terrorists had targeted armed forces,
police men, rangers, places of business activities and even the innocent civilians. The continuous attacks by such
people had badly affected the economy of the country and the poor masses were in the state of trauma and terror
all the time. Business activities slowed down and the already running were either fully or partially destroyed.
The consequences of the terrorism on the economy and the financial market can be divided into short term and
long term effects. In the short run the consequences may be the destruction of life and property, damages to
infrastructure and communication system and the timely movement of people from their houses to some safe
places. While the long run effect can be the lack of confidence in the people. It had diminished the two aspects of
the human nature. Employees and the entrepreneur were in the state of that the employees feel insecurity about
their job and the entrepreneur are not sure either their future returns will be achieved? The macroeconomic
variables in the Pakistan economy are continuously decreasing, the damages to the government property and the
killing of the civilians due to suicidal and bombings placed extra burden on the economy. The reluctance of the
foreign investors to invest in the country lessens the Foreign Direct Investment in the country. Terrorism has also
a significant impact on the financial market of the country. It has direct and indirect influence on the market
when the twin World Trade Centre was blown, every market in World was affected due to such attacks and the
terrorism creates the atmosphere of uncertainty due to which stock prices exhibit volatile behavior. Any attack
that cripples the financial infrastructure, either by shutting down internet and telecommunications or by
physically closing an exchange, would make shares in these companies at risk. There is no absolute strategy for
hedging against terrorism in financial markets; there are stocks that are less likely to be hurt if the market is
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development
ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)
Vol.4, No.1, 2013
rocked by an attack. Make sure you know where your portfolio sits in this ever-changing world so that if any
worst happens, your finances will be prepared – and your risk would be diversified which will help in getting rid
of financial loss.
1.3 Financial Sector at a Glance
The Financial Sector of Pakistan is comparatively performing well in still at the time when the country is
suffering from the menace of terrorism, poor law and order situation, political un-rest, foreign indulgence in
different illegal activities and the degrading of bond ranking by S&P. The financial sector of the country
comprises of the commercial banks, investment banks/investment companies/ securities companies, leasing
companies, insurance, Non-Bank Financial Institutions (NBFIs), Microfinance banks, Central Depository of
National Savings (CDNS), Banking and insurance sector have a dominant position among others due to its high
growth rate and profitability.
1.3.1 Banking Sector
The banking sector fulfill the fundamental purpose of the financial intermediation, taking deposits from those
having excess funds and lending them to those having shortage of funds in the form of loans with a fixed
(Insert Table 1 Here)
In fiscal year 2008 deposits slows down to 9.4% as compare to 18.1% in the last 5 years. The reason for the
decline in the deposits is due to uncertain environment in the country. During the 2nd quarter of 2010
deposits (both time and demand) has boost by Rs. 44.3 billion as compared to the decrease of Rs. 73.1 billion
in year 2009.
1.3.2 Insurance Sector
Insurance is a form of risk management, used to minimize the risk against any loss. The main role of insurance is
to share the risk of possible loss between two units for some fee known as risk premium. This sector encourage
financial steadiness by enabling economic agents to carry out various transactions with the facility of transfer
and distribution of risks. As a crucial component of the financial system, life insurance plans are an important
source of savings and long-term institutional investments essential for the development and growth of bond
markets. The role of life insurance as a financial intermediary is particularly important in countries like Pakistan
with low levels of financial penetration. In Pakistan Insurance sector consists of two major categories: Non Life
and Life insurance companies. And further they are differentiated as public and private sector insurance
companies. The non life private limited companies in the sector were fully control ten major companies and
acquire the market premium up to 84% and the remaining 16% is captured by the public sector companies and
this sector also faced the challenging condition of our country and did not show good results in this unsure
environment. There are four companies in the public sector which are owned by the government of Pakistan.
These are State Life Insurance Corporation of Pakistan, National insurance company limited, Pakistan
Reinsurance Company Limited, and Alpha Insurance Company Limited.
(Insert Table 2 Here)
This sector has showed healthy performance in the last years due to high uncertainty in the country. Some
initiative steps by the government also improve the efficiency of this sector by privatizing the poor performing
state owned companies. Certain challenges and the poor security atmosphere and unrest in the capital and
money market in year 2008 and 2009 hinders in the performance of the sector. Both of the two sectors have huge
potential which the government has not realized till now. The sector can contribute a lot to the GDP, and create
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development
ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)
Vol.4, No.1, 2013
many opportunities of savings, investments and employment which are the main problem in Pakistan. The
government should take proactive strategies to flourish these sectors and provide assistance to it and in the long
run government will benefited a lot from these sectors.
2. Literature Review
Different research studies were conducted by different scholars to identify those factors which affect the share
prices. In this research we will focus on events study and analyzing stock prices behavior due to such events
arising from time to time in the country. That may be comprises of Political, International Issues, Terrorism, and
natural Calamities occurring from time to time in Pakistan and affect KSE stock prices. (Chesney., 2010),
studied the empirical impact of the terrorism along with some extreme events on the financial market and a data
of 25 different countries for 11 years were collected where different terrorist activities took place. Two
approaches were used for the analysis: non-parametric methodology and the events study. The results concluded
at the end showed that financial market behave significant negative relation to terrorist attacks and catastrophic
events supporting the significant relation of the political risk on the market due to which the market slowed
down. (Akysha M. Shakil, 2009), studied the affect of different events on the trading volume and fluctuations in
the prices of the KSE-100 index. For their study they use Pearson Correlation to test either these events have
some affect on KSE trading volume or not and finally they conclude that stock return fluctuate from their actual
due to occurrence of different events. Examining the effects of the terrorism on the financial markets of Pakistan
in 2006-08, (Gul, Tayyeba et al., 2010), carried out a research that whether there are some relationship between
these two or not. For analysis secondary data of some key indicator of the three markets and daily data of
terrorism incidents were collected. And the data was analyzed through Multiple Regression Model; they
concluded that the economy and the financial market have adversely affected by such activities.
(Malik Hussain & Shakil Ahmed, 2009), use Phillips Perron unit root test to inspect the connection with trading
volume and returns. The major event on the base of which research is conducted is the effect of the
pre-resignation and the post-resignation Ex President Pervaiz Musharraf. The results showed that the impact of
the political events on the trading volume and return of the stock prices is significant and prices behave bearish
and bullish trend due to the intensity of the event. (Khan et al., 2009), based six different events of political and
terrorism nature and studies its effect on the stock returns in association with Pak-American relationship they
randomly select six major events and analyzed its effect on the KSE-100 index. Events for the analysis are: 9\11
World Trade Centre, murder of Denial Pearl, war against terror, fights between militants in Waana, Drone
attacks and the resignation of the military, the findings showed that these events have some positive influence on
the returns of the KSE. The effect of terrorist attacks on Japanese Stock Exchange is examined by (Vikash
Ramiah et al., 2008), that how the recent attacks around the world influence different sector of Japanese Stock
exchange. Five major events of terrorism were selected: 9/11, Bali bombing (12th Oct 2002), Madrid bombing
March (2004), and London (2005) and Mumbai (2008). Parametric and non-parametric method of testing was
applied for analysis. The outcome show that the market show negative returns in the short run and due to 9/11
attacks and have weak response towards Bali, Mumbai and London bombings, while reacts negatively to Madrid
terrorist attacks.
(Fowdar & Koonjal, 2008), “Political risks cost the world economy $800b in 2003 especially due to terrorism.”
The speed of price reaction to news and certain political events is of great interest for both investors, researchers
which directly or in-directly influence the stock exchanges around the globe. Study was conducted whether
political news or events affect the returns of the Stock Exchange of Mauritius or not. Spearman’s rho and
regression analysis was used and finally they conclude that political risk and economic news both are highly
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development
ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)
Vol.4, No.1, 2013
valuable and affects the stock exchange. Most of the non local investors used political risk to evaluate the
performance and efficiency of the market, because political events can influence its performance in a striking
manner. (E. Clark et al., 2006), studied the effect of the political risk on the Pakistani Stock market. Hierarchical
Bayesian models and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling was used for the analysis. They collected
political events in Pakistan from 1947 to 2001 and compared it with the returns and conclude that the events
have some influence on the returns of the country stock market. (Aktas & Oncu, 2006), examine the impact of
political event on the stock exchange of Turkey. When the Turkey Parliament reject the bill against Iraq, if the
bill was accepted then American Army can be easily deployed in Iraq and started war against the Saddam
government. This decision by the government drops the IMKB Turkey national stock index very sharply. The
authors used daily data, OLS for the analysis and studied the pre and post effect of the event. Finally they
concluded that stock prices behave inversely when any un-pleasant political event arises in a country.
Same study of the impact of the political events on the stock market is conducted by, (Dar, Feng, and Chun,
2005). They analyzed the Taiwan Stock Exchange (TSE) prices for the possible influence due to events of
political nature. For analysis they used two statistical tools: Event Study Methodology and MVRM. The final
conclusion they drawn indicates that reaction of the prices to the event is insignificant because of the
uninformative nature of events. daily data to analyze how stock and foreign exchange markets react to terror.
The data distinguishes location, (Eldor and Melnick, 2004), uses type of attack and target, number of casualties,
and the number of attacks per day for 639 terror attacks between 1990 and 2003 in Israel. Suicide attacks had a
permanent effect on both the stock and foreign exchange market, as did the numbers of victims, while location of
a terror attack had no effect on either market. Finally they concluded that stock market up to some extent reacts
to such activity. Political risk and events arise in such scenario can bring different changes in the stock market
returns. (Bilson et al., 2002), adopt such scenario and carried out a study in the Pacific Basin. They presented
evidence that political risk may be able to explain some of the variation in emerging stock market returns at both
country and aggregate portfolio levels. Their findings reveal that political risk is important in explaining return
variation in individual emerging markets, particularly in the Pacific Basin, but not in developed markets.
Political events arise in a country can bring some major changes in the stock market. (Robbani and
Anantharaman, 2002), carried out a study to notice the influence of such events on the indices of some stock
market. A sample of selected indices was randomly selected from counties i-e Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and
India. Such sample were selected because of the political uncertainties are more common in these countries.
Daily data of share prices of the selected indices and events of political nature for four years were collected.
Events was considered as independent variable and represented by a dummy variable regression coefficient. The
results of the T-test showed that political events have long term effect on the share prices. Stock market is very
sensitive and their prices can be affected by any negative political situation with in a country. Natural calamities
can influence the stocks of any company based on such assumption (Shelor et al., 1990), conducted a study on
the real estate industry and examine the after effect of earth quake on the stock returns of the sector using t-test
and beta for risk. The interpreted results from analysis suggest that the earth quake has a significant negate
impact on the California real estate sector stocks returns. (Cutler et al., 1989) studied the US market for the
same assumption and concluded that the influence of the market to political events exists. From the views and
research studies by different economists, scholars and financial analyst’s state that events have pessimistic
impact on the prices and the markets showed bullish trend to these events depend on the nature and intensity of
the event.
2.1 Hypothesis
The hypotheses on which the study is based are:
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development
ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)
Vol.4, No.1, 2013
H1: Events have impact on the share prices.
H0: Events doesn’t have impact on the share prices.
3. Methodology
The sample of the study consists of fourteen firms from financial sector. Out of fourteen there were ten banks
and four insurance companies. The time period of the study is from 2007-2010. The sample consists of following
Insurance companies and Commercial Banks: KASB, Muslim Commercial , Meezan , NIB (Formerly PICIC),
My Bank Ltd, National Bank of Pakistan, Saudi Pak commercial , Soneri, Standard Chartered and United Bank
Ltd. From the Insurance sector Admajee, American Life, Asia, and Askari General are selected. Information
about two variables was required i.e., event and stock prices. Daily stock prices figures are collected from the
KSE web portal. Events of different natures like: terrorism, political and of natural calamities data are collected
based on its daily occurrence. Most of the data are collected from Business Recorder, State Bank of Pakistan
and the Karachi Stock Exchange websites.
The effect of events on share prices can be noticed as pre-occurrence and post occurrence of event. This is an
Event study to examine the impact of the events on the prices of the firms in the financial markets. Daily data of
event and prices are collected because of the immediate effect. Event can affect market on the day or after a
couple of days when it occurred and its effects can be observed easily. Analyzing long horizon causes problem
and the outcome is not desirable. (Jun and Uppal, 1994), argued that monthly or annually data sometime shows
fake results due to continuous change of information occur in the market from time to time. (Khilji, 1993) and
(Uppal, 1993) used the monthly and annual data of the analysis but the results were not effective as desired.
4. Analysis and Discussion
This study focused exclusively on the effect of the events on the financial sector of Karachi Stock Exchange.
The data analyzed through SPSS using Paired samples t-test statistics showed that, the events have significant
impact on the share prices. The analysis is carried out in two ways. First, the data is analyzed to find the effects
of events on the firm individually. Secondly, to find the influence of events on the whole sector means the
combined effect.
(Insert Table 3 Here)
The table 3 findings showed that each firm reacts negatively to the event and the firm share prices show bullish
trend after the happening of event. All firms P-values are less than 0.05.
(Insert Table 4 Here)
Table 4 showed the combined effect of the events on the share prices of the whole insurance sector. Here the
results are also significant.
(Insert Table 5 Here)
In table 5 averages of the standard deviation and the mean values are taken before and after the events, which
clearly demonstrate that the averages are deckling when the event occurs. After the event the Standard deviation
and the mean figures decreases which shows that event occurrences has some effect. The p-value is 0.001 which
is less than 0.05 and showed the significant effect by events on all the firms in insurance sector. Most of the
companies in the banking sector when treated individually behave negatively on the happening of the event. The
combine effect of all firms with in the banking sector showed significant behavior to the events. The mean and
standard deviation changes after the event which clearly demonstrate the rejection of the null hypothesis (events
have no impact on share prices). The p-values for all the companies in the sector are less than 0.05, and the
outcome is statistically significant.
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development
ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)
Vol.4, No.1, 2013
(Insert Table 6 Here)
Table 7 showed the combined effect of the overall banking sector due to occurrence of events, the mean and the
standard deviation before the event were 58.595 and 86.630 respectively but when the event occurred the
averages decreased and exhibit that the event has affected the returns of the sector after its occurrences.
(Insert Table 7 & 8 Here)
In table 8 the p-value is less than 0.05, which suggest that the share prices of all the banks in the sector behave
downward trend.
5. Conclusion
The research study conducted is to find out how the stock prices react when an event occurs. The findings from
the analysis clearly showed that event have significant impact on the share prices of the Karachi Stock
Exchange. Some major events that took place in 2007-2010, drop the KSE-100 index from top to bottom. The
results of the individual firms and then the comparison of the whole insurance and banking sectors are in
supporting of accepting alternate hypothesis (H1) i-e event have impact on the prices of the stocks in the said
sectors. The significant relation of the events on the stock prices is consistent with the study of (Khan et al.,
2009), who concluded the negative impact of events on the share prices of the Karachi Stock Exchange.
(Chesney et al., 2010), concluded that the insurance and the banking sector showed high sensitivity and negative
impact to events of natural calamities and the terrorists activities. Hence it is concluded that events have
significant impact on the stock prices and the research hypothesis that was derive before the study that an event
does have an impact on the stock prices is approved. And the financial sector in Pakistan showed significant
relation to event when it occurs.
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Indexes”, International Review of Business Research Papers Vol. 5 No. 5 September 2009 Pp. 373-383
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Cutler, Poterba, & summers (1989). “What moves Stock Prices?” Journal of Management portfolio.15 (3):
Dar, Feng, and Chun (2005). “The Impacts of Political Events on Foreign Institutional Investors and Stock
Returns: Emerging Market Evidence from Taiwan, International Journal of Business, Vol.10, No. 2, pp.
E. Clark, O. Masood and R. Tunaru (2006). “Political Events Affecting the Pakistan Stock Exchange: An
Analysis of the Past and Forecasting the Future” presented QQASS Special issue conference
Eldor and Melnick (2004). “Financial markets and terrorism”, European Journal of Political Economy Volume
20, Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 367-386
Fowdar & Koonjal (2008). “An Assessment of the Impact of Economic and Political News on Returns And
Liquidity Of The Stock Exchange Of Mauritius”, 2008 EABR & TLC Conferences Proceedings
Rothenburg, Germany
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Sciences – Volume 18, Number 1
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Jun, and Uppal (1994). “Portfolio Flows to Pakistan: Trends and Policies”. A Paper presented at the Private
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of Business Research Papers Vol.5 No.5 September 2009 Pp. 273-288.
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Conference 2008 Paper
Table: 1 Highlights of the Banking System (Rs, Billions)
2005 2006 2007 2008 Sep‐09 Dec‐09
Total Assets 3,660 4,353 5,172 5,627 6,105 6,529
Investments (net) 800 833 1,276 1,080 1,593 1,753
Advances (net) 1,991 2,428 2,688 3,183 3,119 3,248
Deposits 2,832 3,255 3,854 4,217 4,483 4,787
Equity 292 402 544 563 641 662
Profit Before Tax (PBT) 94 124 107 63 70 91
Profit After Tax (PAT) 63 84 73 43 42 54
Non‐Performing Loans 177 177 218 359 422 432
Non‐Performing Loans 41 39 30 109 128 125
Capital Adequacy Ratio 11.3 12.7 12.3 12.3 14.3 14.1

Source: State Bank of Pakistan
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Vol.4, No.1, 2013
Table: 2 Asset structure of the insurance industry

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Table: 3 Insurance Sectors
Company t-statistics P-Value Remarks
Adamjee -4.793 0.000 Significant
American Life -4.749 0.000 Significant
Asian -2.263 0.024 Significant
Askari General -4.309 0.000 Significant
Share In Percent, Amount In Billion Rupees
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Life 73.7 73.7 71.4 71 70.6 67.1 58.8 62.2 64.3
State owned 71.6 71.2 67.7 66.8 65.5 61.5 52.1 56.2 56.3
Domestic 1.2 1.5 2.4 2.6 3.1 3.3 4.2 3.6 5
Foreign 0.9 1 1.3 1.6 2 2.3 2.5 2.4 3
Non-Life 23.4 23.1 24.5 25.2 26.6 30.2 37.2 33.4 31.7
State owned 9.9 9.4 9.3 8.6 8.4 7.4 6.6 6.5 6.9
Domestic 12.7 12.8 14.2 15.9 17.4 22 29.8 26.2 24
Foreign 0.8 0.9 1 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7
State owned 2.9 3.2 4.1 3.8 2.8 2.6 3.2 3.6 3.2
Takaful – – – – – 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.8
GDP share 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.9 3 3.4 2.9 2.8
Total Assets 113.4 129.7 151.3 174.6 201.7 246.1 325.1 341.4 386.8
Source: Annual Audited Accounts of Insurance Companies and Economic Survey of Pakistan 2009-10
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development
ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)
Vol.4, No.1, 2013
Table: 6 banking sector
Company t-statistics P-Value Remarks
KASB -3.367 0.001 Significant
MCB -3.651 0.000 Significant
MEEZAN -4.6 0.000 Significant
MYBANK -5.102 0.000 Significant
NBP -4.33 0.000 Significant
NIB -3.918 0.000 Significant
SAUDIPAK -4.336 0.000 Significant
SONERI -4.609 0.000 Significant
Standard Chartered -4.165 0.000 Significant
UBL -3.913 0.000 Significant
Table: 7 Dummy N Mean Std. Deviation Std.Error Mean
banks Before event 2790 58.595 86.630 1.640
After event 2310 49.167 74.257 1.545
Table:4 t-statistics P-Value Remarks
Combined Insurance -3.427 0.001 Significant
Table: 5 Dummy N Mean
Std. Error
Combined insurance
Before event 1395 58.128 89.760 2.403
After event 1155 47.009 70.367 2.071
Table: 8 t-statistics P-Value Remarks
Banks -4.124 0.000 Significant
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  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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