How to prevent future cardiac damage

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NR 341-Complex Adult Health


Dr. Pettifor


November 6th, 2022




Pre-Sim: Susan Weil


Clinical Manifestations Representative of ST Segment and Non-ST Segment

Patients who experience Non-Stemi symptoms should seek emergency medical attention right away because they can be lethal. Understanding and being alert to the symptoms of this condition immediately can help to prevent future cardiac damage (Huecker., 2022). Clinical Manifestations that are indicative of a non-ST segment include breathing difficulties, chest discomfort, a feeling of weight or pressure, dizziness, excessive perspiration, and back pain or irritation. The client may first show hardly any symptoms or more progressive ones with ST segment presentations. Regular checkups for the client are crucial in this situation. Usually, the heaviness in the chest, aching throughout, shortness of breath, or nausea and vomiting are the first noticeable symptoms (Huecker., 2022).


Electrocardiogram and Cardiac Biomarkers with STEMI Event

Cardiac biomarkers help medical practitioners identify the underlying cause of a patient’s symptoms, including a heart attack (myocardial infarction), angina, heart failure, or another condition (W;, 2010). Acute coronary syndrome or myocardial ischemia could both be indicated by increases in cardiac enzymes (ACS). It is impossible to tell whether a STEMI has occurred without doing an electrocardiogram (ECG), a test that shows the electrical activity of the heart as a wave pattern. When someone displays the warning signs and symptoms of a probable heart attack, the 12-lead electrocardiogram, also referred to as a “ECG,” is an essential diagnostic technique. Paramedics and EMTs may do this test in the patient’s home. They are searching for an elevated ST-segment on the 12-lead ECG. There are numerous ways to transmit the ECG to the hospital, allowing doctors to read it while the patient is still in the field. It might be difficult to interpret an ECG since ST-segment elevation can be caused by diseases other than heart attacks. For that reason, ECG Medical Training was developed. In essence, it says, “We have identified a patient who is experiencing an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and we are officially demanding that a life-saving team and equipment be established immediately.” Different EMS organizations and emergency hospitals use the term “Code STEMI” (W;, 2010).


Actions, Side Effects, and Nursing Interventions Required for Administering Medications


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin are used to relieve edema, fever, and mild pain. Hemorrhaging, liver or renal damage, and other negative effects of this medication are possible. (Vallerand & Sanoski, 2023). A nursing intervention for this drug would be to evaluate the client’s pain and determine whether she is pregnant, as it shouldn’t be administered to patients who are pregnant or who have gotten the varicella vaccine due to the danger of Reye’s Syndrome. (Vallerand & Sanoski, 2023).


A medication called nitroglycerin is used to lower arterial blood pressure and, by relaxing heart muscle, lower myocardial oxygen demand. Headaches, dizziness, hypotension, syncope, cold sweats, and N/V are only a few of this medication’s negative effects. Giving sublingual preparations under the tongue with water as a delivery method is one possible intervention for this (Vallerand & Sanoski, 2023).


Morphine is prescribed for painful conditions. However, this medication has the potential to produce symptoms such as respiratory depression, hypotension, itching, and blurred vision. Nurses can help with this by checking the client’s vitals every 15 to 30 minutes and asking the client to report any worsening signs of tiredness or signs of respiratory depression. (Vallerand & Sanoski, 2023). As a backup plan in case of overdose, the nurse should also carry naloxone on standby (Brown & Capili, 2020).



A medicine called heparin is used to treat atrial fibrillation and stop blood clots from forming. Headaches, chills, nausea, epistaxis, bruises, and constipation are among the side effects that this medication may produce (Vallerand & Sanoski, 2023). A nurse should review the patient’s past medical history to look for any recent surgeries or injuries. The findings of the client’s coagulation test should also be taken into consideration when the nurse modifies dosages. As a final precaution against repeated injections, the nurse should additionally use a heparin lock needle (Vallerand & Sanoski, 2023).


Finally, clients who require oxygen supplementation are treated with oxygen therapy to maintain targeted SPO2 levels. It’s important to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the client when they’re undergoing oxygen treatment to figure out what level of saturation is appropriate. An hourly check of the oxygen flow rate, the integrity of the tubing, and the humidifier settings is required of the nurse in addition to the assessment of the client’s airway and the best position for it. Substernal heaviness, chest pain, coughing, and dyspnea are some potential side effects (Vallerand & Sanoski, 2023).

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