The capacity of oxygen to bind with hemoglobin are involved in determining how much oxygen is available for cellular respiration. Diseases and environmental conditions will surely affect the capacity of carrying oxygen and delivery the oxygen, likewise, shows effect in body temperature, Co2 level and blood pH. When the carbon dioxide concentration increases in the blood, the pH of the blood will decrease. Usually, the blood carbon dioxide will readily react with water to form H+ ions and bicarbonate (HCO3-). Hence the affinity of binding of oxygen is reduced due to the increase in the carbon dioxide concentration. In disease conditions like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, the ability of delivering oxygen to different tissues and the carrying capacity of oxygen in found decreased.
Carbon Dioxide Transpor
The transport of carbon dioxide takes place in a variety of manner, such by means of bicarbonate buffer system, dissolution, and hemoglobin binding. The distinct properties of carbon dioxide will readily affect the blood transport. Since oxygen is less soluble in blood when it is compared to carbon dioxide. The plasma contains nearly 5-7% of carbon dioxide. some cases.
The hemoglobin will bind with the available carbon dioxide by entering inside the red blood cells. Such binding will lead to formation of carbaminohemoglobin. This process of binding is reversible, hence when the carbaminohemoglobin enters the lungs, they are expelled out by the lungs by dissociating it from the hemoglobin. In case of carbon dioxide buffer system, the diffusion of carbon dioxide into the red blood cells occurs. It will result in formation of carbonic acid inside the red blood cells by converting carbon dioxide with the help of carbonic anhydrase (CA). The unstable carbonic acid will form hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. These causes further pH changes in the RBC, by the binding of H+ ions with the hemoglobin. Chloride shift occurs between the RBC and the surrounding liquid components, where chlorine ions gets in.
The hemoglobin protein are usually involved in delivering oxygen throughout the body. They are comprised inside the RBC of blood. Oxygen is very much required for the cellular respiration. They are the shape deciding factor of RCB in the blood which make them biconcave. This shape of RBC facilitates the movement of blood every easier inside the blood vessels. Four molecules of hemoglobin is carried by each alpha and beta subunit of hemoglobin molecule. Oxygen possess poor solubility in the blood, hence the atom of oxygen carried by the arterial blood, usually 1.5% of the volume. The hemoglobin content of the blood is directly involved in determining the rate of oxygen delivery to the tissues. Polycythemia condition is characterized by the high hemoglobin level which is a rare blood disease. The blood hence will become more thicker than the usual normal form. Such thickening causes the increased density of blood content, so the possibility of getting heart attacks and stoke. Sometimes it may lead to serious impairments and even may fatal. Lifestyle changes are somewhat causing this condition. Anemia is characterized by reduced level of hemoglobin due to iron deficiency, or sometime heavy blood loss and poor absorption of iron can cause anemia.
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