How are the P, F1, and F2 generations related? Do the F1 and F2 generations undergo cross- fertilization or self-fertilization?
What does it mean to be the dominant versus recessive trait for a given character?
When Mendel crossed two pure-bred flowers (one white and one purple), what did the F1 generation look like when purple was dominant? When two F1s were crossed, what did the F2 generation look like?
Use the word gene, allele, and trait in a sentence to describe their relationship.
What does it mean to be homozygous versus heterozygous? Give an example of each.
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? If the phenotype represents the dominant allele for a given character, do you know what the genotype is and why?
When two purple flowers are crossed, where one is homozygous and the other is heterozygous for color, and purple is dominant, what is the phenotypic and genotypic ratio that you would expect? What is this cross referred to as?
If two flowers are crossed and both are orange (dominant), and yellow is recessive, and both are heterozygotes, what are the expected phenotypic and genotypic ratios?
Distinguish between Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment.
What is the phenotypic ratio after performing a dihybrid cross?
How do two genes being close together on a chromosome influence how they are inherited?
Contrast continuous variation and pleiotropic effects.
Contrast incomplete dominance and codominance as they affect coloration.
If you have blood type O, do you produce sugars on the surface of rbcs? Why is type O the universal donor and type AB the universal receiver?
If you are XY what is your sex? Are these chromosomes autosomes?
Organisms that are monosomic or trisomic have how many chromosomes?
Characterize diseases that can result as a result of non-disjunction of the X chromosome.
Explain how the Hershey-Chase experiment demonstrated that DNA versus protein is the hereditary material.
What are the two main types of bases found in nucleotides? Give two examples of each.
Which bases pair together with one another in DNA?
What is the form that DNA takes in eukaryotes?
Two bases that are bound together by hydrogen bonds from the two strands of DNA are referred to as what?
DNA replication is semi-conservative. What does that mean?
What are 4 enzymes involved in DNA replication and what is each of their functions?
Describe the central dogma. What two processes occur as part of it?
Contrast mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA and their roles in translation.
Differentiate between DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase.
What is the relationship between codons and amino acids?
In translation where do you find the codons and anticodons? How do the codons and anticodons relate to each other?
Do exons and introns code for amino acids? Which of the above is not important for protein synthesis?
List each step involved in transcription and translation. Be prepared to put them in order on the exam from start to finish.
How can transposons influence the function of genes?
What is an operon and how is it turned on to transcribe and translate its genes?
How does mutation result? Why are frame-shifts more serious than point mutations?
What is the genome and how does it relate to chromosomes and genes?
What does DNA sequencing permit researchers to do?
How does the number of genes compare in prokaryotes versus eukaryotes?
Are genes distributed evenly among chromosomes?
What are the 4 classes of protein-encoding genes and how do they differ?
What are the 4 classes of non-protein-encoding DNA and how do they differ?
How do transposons render protein-encoding genes non-functional?
What is genetic engineering?
Explain how restriction enzymes play a role in genetic engineering.
List three ways in which genetic engineering had advanced medicine.
How has been genetic engineering been used to combat diabetes?
List the steps involved in creating a piggyback vaccine.
What are the problems with using adenovirus in gene therapy and how is using adeno-associated virus more advantageous?
Where do embryonic stem cells come from, what does it mean when we say they are totipotent, and how can they be used in medicine?
What are the two major problems with using embryonic stem cells?
Describe the steps involved in therapeutic cloning.
How is therapeutic cloning different from reproductive cloning?
Who and what is Dolly?
What is genomic imprinting?
List the three ways in which genetic engineering has advanced agriculture.
What risks do genetically modified plants pose to the environment and people who consume them?