Biodiversity crisis on land and water analysis

Four Stages of Human:
There are four stages of human, namely caucasoid, negroid, mongoloid, and australoid. The various characters that the hominins possess, including:

Bipedalism: It can be said as upright walking with the help of two legs. Bipedalism has a contrast with quadrupedalism having the idea that individuals used all four while walking. There are various adaptations, which are evident when the skeleton is being checked for its bipedalism. It involves various skeletal pieces of evidence. In chimpanzees, the big toe is found to be away from the rest of the fingers, which is divergent, unlike humans who do not need a big toe to be divergent as they do not require it for grasping around. The femur in the chimpanzee is found to go straight from the pelvis towards the knee. Whereas in the cases of Homosapiens hominins, the femur is seen to have an angle with the knee, to allow smoother walks. The curve of the spine is also evident in bipedalism support in humans. It enables thermoregulation. It makes it easier for object transfer. Predator avoidance is one of the positive aspects bipedalism has provided.

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Encephalization: Involves the increase in cranial capacity over time. Modern humans have a cranial capacity of around 1450cc, much lower than the Cro-Magnons but significantly higher than the early ancestors.

Tool Use: The next significant advancement that came in the way involved, the usage of a tool. First stone tools evidence can be encountered around 3.3 million years ago. It was the Lomekwi tools, which were the pioneer of the tools involving usage. Acheulean hand-axes were first observed during 1.8 mya. The controlled usage of fire became prevalent. Complex technologies were eventually derived.

Teeth size: Increase in teeth size was observed during the beginning of the lineage as a progression towards tougher foods was to be made. Eventually, a reduction in the size of canines was observed, with the advent of high-quality food. The dental formula of the dental set was 2:1:2:3

Hominin Characteristics of Species

The earliest hominin species included Sahelanthropus tchadensis, having a discovery from Africa. They had a cranial capacity of 320-380cc. Both ape and human characteristics were observable, suggesting it is the common ancestor. The next advancement towards humans included Orrorin tugenensis, having being evident around 6 mya in east Africa. They have begun to show bipedalism and reduction in the size of teeth. Arms were arboreal, suggesting that most of their time being spent on trees.

Ardipithecus kadabbaandArdipithecus ramidus were evident from 5.8 to 4.4 mya in east Africa, being probably bipedal. Kenyanthropus had a flat face and were evident from around 3.5- 3.2 mya in East Africa. They had small molars and flat face, so was their name being Kenyanthropus platyops. They are suggestive of having a habitat belonging to either grassland or forest environment.

Australopithecus was in play from around 4.2 mya, evidence of their origin were obtained from East and South Africa. They had large molars and canines. Evidence has shown them to be bipedal, despite the fact of them being probably arboreal. They had large enamel. Australopithecus afarensis was evident around 3.8 to 3 mya. They had long arms, the best-preserved fossil as all know came from this specimen named Lucy, showing features of bipedal anatomy and a length of around 3.5 to 5’ length. A. deyiremeda was found around 3.5- 3.3 mya, at the same area where Lucy was found. This gives proof that the species might have been interrelated. A. africanus was discovered to exist around 3-2 mya, having a cranial capacity of about 490 cubic cm. They had signs of both arboreal and bipedal features. The tools used included Oldowan tools and Lomekwian tools evident around 3.3-1.7 mya.

Paranthropus had very large teeth, being evident from 2.7 to 1 mya. They had a sagittal crest and had flared cheekbones. The muscle and the nome structure were interdependent on one another. P.aethiopicus had a cranial capacity of 410 cc and had a large teeth size. P.boisei had large molars and a sagittal crest. They were evident from about 2.4-1.2 mya in East Africa. P.robustus has shown to be evident from 1-2 mya in South Africa. They are known to have a cranial capacity of 410-530cc. The length of the species was found to be around 3-4’ tall.

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